Glossary

Glossary
1

Glossary

On our site, you may see concepts that you have not heard of before. When this happens, we encourage you to use the following glossary to ensure that the content is fully understood.

A

A/B testing

comparative tests based on two versions of the solution that differ in a single variable. Based on the conclusions of the tests, it is determined whether the change introduced in the project can have a positive effect on the conversion rate.

Accessibility

creation of a solution (e.g. an application, system, platform) in such a way that it can be comfortably used by as many people as possible. The issue of accessibility is closely related to the barriers faced by elderly or disabled people.

Adaptive hyper-recommendation mechanisms

mechanisms that rely on recommendation engines, artificial intelligence and data, and create intelligent, highly contextual shopping hints that adapt to any changes of preferences in real time.

AdverGaming

using game engines and mechanisms/scenarios known from games, to unconventionally present information about the product/service offer (promotional purposes) and reach a wide audience with an advertising message. By providing entertainment to users, you can create a positive brand image, increase its visibility, and learn about the behaviour of a group of recipients.

Anonymous data

transformation of personal data which prevents the assignment of sensitive data to a natural person.

Augmented Reality (AR)

a combination of real and virtual world. In applications employing the AR technology, most often used is the image from a camera, applied to which are digitally generated 3D elements.

B

Behavior-Driven Development (BDD)

creation of a solution by describing user behavior, and taking into account their perspective. All activities are aimed at providing the recipients with specific functionalities they need and consider an added value.

Big Data

a process of searching, collecting, analysing and processing a huge amount of unstructured data, which has a different type/format and comes from many sources.

Binding corporate rules

personal data protection rules adapted to local law, regarding the transfer of information between the company, its branches in third countries and a controlling authority, related to economic activity.

Biometric data

data allowing the identification of a natural person through their physical features. The collected data include fingerprints, retinal scans or facial scans.

C

Canvas Business Model

a business model that indicates the activity structure of the organisation (in such areas as recipients, offer, infrastructure, finance) and the value proposition. The model takes into account those activities that enable revenue to be generated, as well as rational use of resources to effectively propose values.

Consent

according to GDPR, a conscious and unambiguous declaration of will to the processing of personal data, which can be revoked at any time.

Continuous Delivery

it is a process of developing software in short cycles, ensuring its reliability. This means that any change made in the code, regardless of its type and size, can be issued (made public) at any time. The idea of Continuous Delivery is to make building, testing and releasing the product even faster and more frequent.

Continuous Integration

it is a process of merging the results obtained during the programming works; systematic integration of changes made in the code with the main repository, and verification of these changes (by building a project and conducting unit testing).

Corporate identity

a basic tool for building the company's identity and awareness among its recipients. One of the most important elements of promotional strategy, consisting of the whole of behaviours and symbols used by the company. It can achieve a distinctive and coherent image, and thanks to its uniqueness – increase its popularity and strengthen its competitiveness.

Cross-selling

it is a marketing procedure aimed at selling additional/complementary products/services that together create a comprehensive solution.

Customer Experience

managing the relationship and planning the type and amount of interaction between the recipient and the brand. The main idea is to build a positive experience through a proper preparation of the elements of the “customer journey”, e.g. an intuitive and responsive application that is tailored to the needs, or creating a corporate identity consistent with the identity of the organisation and the current trends.

Customization

it is carried out by the user; they adjust or make changes in the product (e.g. applications, system, platform) by themselves to match their specific needs. This is done, among others, by configuring the appearance, layout, content or scope of functionality of the product to the available extent.

Cybersecurity

these are procedures and appropriate technical facilities ensuring the protection of digitally collected data, with particular emphasis on sensitive data.

D

Data Science

activities in the field of combining and applying various methods, algorithms and complex programming techniques to conduct intelligent analysis of large amounts of data (Big Data) and acquire knowledge for business purposes. The solution is used for profiling users, identifying the needs and expectations of the market, building a competitive advantage, understanding behaviours and trends, among others.

Data breach

occurs when an organization loses control over its personal data and cannot ensure their security.

Data classification program

the process of organizing data based on the type of information collected and the company profile which processes it. Thanks to them, it is possible to take appropriate security measures which ensure protection of the most sensitive elements of the database

Data concerning health

information about the physical and mental state of a natural person, including the type of health insurance in force.

Data controller

an organization or person responsible for data management

Data mining

an analytical process that is associated with the study of large cumulative data resources in order to find regular patterns and systematic interdependencies between them. As a result of these activities, it is possible to predict positive/negative occurrences, e.g. user behaviour, potential sales volume in a given period, probability of customer loss, and reasons for leaving.

Data processor

an organization or person processing data under the supervision of a competent authority.

Data protection officer or DPO

the person responsible for auditing an organization, aimed at confirming whether the entity operates in compliance with the guidelines on data security.

Data subject

a person whose personal data is processed by a given organization

Deep Neural Networks

a set of algorithms detecting information dependencies and patterns in a similar way the human brain does. The algorithms interpret sensory data through labelling, data grouping or machine perception. Thanks to this, the computer can, e.g. recognise speech, identify images and sounds, or create forecasts.

F

Federated identity

sharing the electronic identity of a given person between several entities that have established an agreement between themselves. By transferring identity attributes between identifying units, the user can conveniently use the same identification data and have access to all services offered by a group of entities.

Filing system

a structured set of personal data to which access is granted on the basis of specific criteria. Its form can be centralized, decentralized, and distributed. It is also a method of file storage, as well as management of files and information about them, so that access to the files and stored data is easy for the user of the system.

G

GDPR

Regulation on the Protection of Personal Data. The document was created within the framework of the European Union and introduces modernized and standardized regulations regarding the processing of personal data within the Community.

Gamification

using game engines and mechanisms/scenarios known from games, in order to trigger a positive stimulation of the recipient, encourage them to take specific actions and to learn new attitudes. The user – accepting the challenges and rivaling/cooperating with other people – can, e.g. learn about the world of brand experiences (communication purposes) and its product/service offer (promotional purposes).

Genetic data

personal data on an individual's genetic code, which contain data on the physiology and health of the person, obtained from biological samples taken or interviews.

Growth Hacking

a collection of creative marketing techniques aimed to attract and keep the attention of new customers in the channels used by the company. Growth-hacking campaigns often employ innovative solutions that generate traffic at low cost, e.g. using social media, viral marketing.

H

Hybrid application

a mobile application that employs technologies used to create web applications, and which at the same time has access to native smartphone functions. A hybrid application is a form of a modified version of a native application.

I

Identity and access management

introduction of procedures determining who can have access to specific resources and what they can do with them. Creation of systems through which the tasks (roles) of persons, the scope of access to particular applications/systems, and the scope of access to data within applications/systems are precisely defined. In addition, they verify these authorisations and control the behaviour of persons with respect to resources.

Integration testing

consists of tests that check several components at the same time. They are carried out to detect errors in the interfaces and interactions between the modules that make up the program.

Iteration

a repetition activity, closely related to the improvement and adaptation of solutions to expectations (of, e.g. the market, clients). Each iteration can be considered finished at the moment of creating a working and valuable product (from the user's point of view), and after measuring the reactions and drawing conclusions.

M

Machine learning

an automatic system that can improve itself by using the collected data, and gain new knowledge thanks to it. The whole process consists of performing specific tasks by systems and simultaneously learning from continuous data analysis.

Manual testing

consists of tests performed manually (by hand) by a person, without the support of software or scripts. They are flexible (allow for expanding the test scenario), and work well if there is no need to repeat them frequently.

Microservices

a software development technique based on small, autonomous, decentralised services focused on fulfilling a specific task.

Minimisation

the process of collecting and processing only the personal data that is necessary to achieve the previously defined goals. This means carrying out a selection and limiting the amount of data to the real minimum. It is one of the GDPR requirements that must be met by the entities collecting and processing data.

Minimum Viable Product (MVP)

a product (it can be, e.g. an application, system, program, service) with just enough features to be introduced to the market, while maintaining its appropriate quality. Created to present basic functionalities and values, and to measure the interest among potential recipients.

Multi-factor authentication

protection and authorization of a user account when an unauthorised person tries to log in providing the user ID (login) and authentication password. In the case of using a multi-factor authentication, this data is not enough and the person will have to, e.g. provide a code or phrase sent via SMS or e-mail message, use a password from a card with disposable passwords, perform a fingerprint or retina scan.

Multiscreening

simultaneous use of at least two electronic devices, e.g. phone, computer, tablet.

N

Native application

a mobile application, written from the start in a programming language appropriate for a given operating system

O

Object-oriented programming

creation of applications in such a way as to best reflect the surrounding reality. It is important to focus on objects and their relations, so that the application can adequately reflect the way people perceive the world.

Omnichannel

a strategy that is based on simultaneous and fully integrated use of online/offline channels for communication with a client/partner. The information contained in all of the channels owned is consistent, so that the clients will always be able to see the same offer/messages, regardless of the channel they use.

P

Penetration test

a test that involves a controlled attempt to breach the IT system, and then identify, analyse and assess the risks associated with found vulnerabilities and weaknesses in the system/application security. However, such a simulation of a real hacking attack does not cause material and non-material damage, and allows for planning corrective actions.

Performance testing

consists of tests based on attempting to load the server/database/application by generating virtual users implementing the prepared usage scenarios.

Personal data, personally identifiable information or PII

any type of data allowing the identification of a natural person, e.g. their name, surname, telephone number, email address. Privacy by default – When a product or service has default privacy settings at the highest level of security. The user can change them manually at their own discretion.

Personalization

it is carried out by the product being used (e.g. application, system, platform). The product, by employing – among others – machine learning, predictive technologies, data from loyalty programmes or “traces” left in the digital space, aims to provide the user with an appearance, content, experience or functionality that closely matches their needs.

Predictive analytics

the process of using statistical techniques, predictive modelling, machine learning and data mining that analyse current and historical data. The patterns found are used to identify risks, opportunities and threats, and to predict future/potential events.

Privacy by default

When a product or service has default privacy settings at the highest level of security. The user can change them manually at their own discretion.

Privacy by design

means the implementation of security and privacy solutions from the beginning of the project, taking into account such elements as: production, data collection, marketing campaigns or the creation of the final report.

Privacy impact assessment

a formal process aimed at checking whether the marketing campaign at its every stage is consistent with the guidelines for the processing of personal data and their security. The assessment also identifies potential threats in the project.

Privacy policy

these regulations are supported by legal provisions and explain: the rules according to which data left for an organization will be used and processed, who the organization is, as well as provide a supplementary explanation.

Processing

the way an organization processes and uses the collected personal data, e.g. collecting e-mail addresses to send the newsletter.

Product Information Management

a set of processes that combine into one system for managing product information. PIM is based on using a central data repository, through which the constantly updated product information (product data) is being identified, stored, managed and distributed to each of the channels owned (e.g. e-commerce platform, mobile application, online catalogue, website).

Product/Market Fit (PMF)

a product that, thanks to numerous iterations and user testing, has evolved into a final solution, and has a chance to fit into the market, that is – to meet the needs of its recipients.

Profiling

the process of automated data analysis allowing segregation, grouping and prediction of specific actions based on them. A good example would be loyalty cards which allow you to track purchase behavior and send personalized sales offers based one's preferences.

Prototype

a basic version of a given solution, which is designed and built to demonstrate basic functionality, and to check the reasonableness of investing and developing the idea further.

Pseudonymous data / Pseudonymization

data is encrypted and unavailable without the right security key. This solution is suggested by GDPR.

R

Ready modules

fragments of a correctly defined code that together form one program or a set of many programs. This means that the code can be an independent and self-sufficient application, or can be integrated via the interface with other components/programs, and thus – create a large project. Modules are checked (by being used and tested first) and accelerate the process of software development.

Regression testing

consists of repeated tests carried out on an already tested program, which has undergone further modifications. These tests are aimed at risk assessment and detection of introduced or undiscovered defects during the implemented modifications.

S

SOLID principles

five basic rules that are worth following during an object-oriented programming; these are: Single responsibility principle, Open/closed principle, Liskov substitution principle, Interface segregation principle and Dependency inversion principle.

SWOT analysis

a method that makes it possible to perform internal and external analysis of the organisation/project/solution/investment in order to create an adequate strategy. The strategy created this way is founded on actions based on Strengths Opportunities, while removing or minimising Weaknesses and Threats.

Scrum

agile approach in project management, the main idea of which is to create a product both valuable and expected by the market. Product development is divided into smaller iterations (sprints) that follow each other directly. With each iteration, the team has to solve complex problems, adapt the product to client's requirements, and provide a working version of the product.

Security audit

a process of thorough verification of the level of security; carrying out legal and technical inspection, conducting a comprehensive analysis (of, e.g. infrastructure, databases, information), defining internal/external threats and generating a report on vulnerabilities. Results of the audit allow to determine whether the application/system/organisation has adequate security, and whether they fulfill their function, and if not – to select adequate security procedures/measures.

Sensitive data

transformation of personal data which prevents the assignment of sensitive data to a natural person.

Separation of concerns

a process of separating a computer program into modules (sections) that overlap each other from a functional point of view to the smallest extent possible. The goal is that none of the elements shares a concern with another one.

Simulator

a program used to reenact the course of real processes or activities in artificial conditions. When working on a virtual model, you can check different scenarios and verify the users behaviour.

Single Sign On

a process thanks to which users have access to all authorized resources within e.g. an application/system/platform, which are separate products and usually have different login mechanisms. The user enters login and password only once and gets access to every application integrated with SSO.

Statistical techniques

methods for collecting, synthesising, analysing and interpreting variable data. You can assess the value of the collected information and the extent to which this information can be used by assessing the parameters in the statistical model and testing the hypotheses made about the competing models.

System architecture

basic system organisation consisting of components (their functions and the connections between them), work environment and guidelines that determine how to build and develop the system further.

T

Technology stack

it is a collection of part or all of the computer software used in a given organisation. A basic stack may consist of operating system, database, tools for managing the environment, log control system, application server or WWW, among others.

Third party data

data provided by a person or organization authorized by the relevant control authority. This applies to data collected by a given entity and then sold for marketing purposes.

Time To Market

an indicator that determines the time between the development of product's specifications to the moment of its launch and sale.

U

Unit testing

consists of tests that check the correct operation of individual elements (units) of the program during its development. A program fragment is subject to tests that execute it (perform its function) and compare the obtained results with the expected ones.

Up-selling

it is a process of offering the client products/services that are characterised by a higher price, standard or scope of functionality. This procedure is aimed at making the client aware of the existence of a different (better) version of the product/service they are currently looking for.

User Experience (UX)

creation of recipient-oriented solutions; designing the user's experience while using the product (e.g. an application, system, platform). Particular emphasis is put on the preservation of usability, accessibility, intuitiveness and aesthetics.

User Interface (UI)

a part of the product (e.g. an application, program, operating system) that is responsible for communication with the recipient. It consists of a visual and text layer, user's movement paths, information architecture and interaction processes.

User-Generated Content

the content created and sent by the user (e.g. posts, entries, photos or videos) – usually online.

V

Virtual Reality (VR)

multimedia-based creation of a digital vision of events, space, things or characters. VR applications use 3D computer-generated graphics that deepen the sense of being in a different space.

Virtual walk

imitation of a real walk around a given place. A virtual walk is created digitally, by combining panoramas (series of panoramic photos/videos from a specific point) and applying them to a sphere. Other multimedia elements can be used, such as music, sound effects and narration. During the walk, the user can freely look around and come closer to any objects.

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Your personal data shall be processed within the scope of: full name, e-mail address and/or telephone number in order to answer your question/request for contact and send feedback – pursuant to Art. 6 section 1 (a) of the GDPR, i.e. consent to the processing of personal data.

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The Data Controller, Sagiton Sp. z o.o., would like to inform you that they shall not use your personal data for automated decision-making, which is based solely on automated processing, including profiling, and has legal effects for you or affects you significantly in a similar way.